The Bauhaus school was founded in 1919 by architect Walter Gropius in Weimar, Germany as a college of design, before moving in 1925 to its especially designed home in Dessau, created by Gropius himself. The school’s progressive teachings sought to unite art and production, taking on different shifts under each architect-director of the school – Gropius 1919-28, Hannes Meyer 1928-30, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 1930-33. The school closed down in 1933, after pressure from the Nazi regime, yet its ideas continued to spread across the world.
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ADGB Trade Union School, 1930
Designed by Hannes Meyer, Hans Wittwer and the building department at the Bauhaus in Dessau, the Federal School of the German Trade Union Federation in Bernau was established to give training to federal and trade union members on subjects such as social policy and labour law. The architecture is based upon communal school life, where 120 students were organised in groups of 10 for living and working in a unit. The building features communal areas such as auditorium and dining hall in the main building, five residential wings and library and sports hall building, each linked by a long glass corridor.
Bauhaus School, 1925-6
Walter Gropius, Bauhaus founder, was commissioned by the city of Dessau to build the Bauhaus School that consists of workshops, classrooms, studios and administrative offices. Each function is separated into a unique building and the workshop and school building are connected by a two storey bridge. The design follows the system Gropius had realised within his design for the Fagus factory in Ahlfeld an der Leine, that included a glass facade on the load-bearing framework. The building was listed in 1972, and restored for the first time.
Fagus factory, 1911
Walter Gropius designed the Fagus factory complex in Alfeld an der Leine in Lower Saxony with a structural system that supported vast expanses of glass panels, coined the ‘curtain wall’ – a major innovation of its time. The building design defined the functionalist aesthetics of the Bauhaus and the later International School. The complex hold 10 buildings that each accommodate the stages of manufacture, storage, dispatch for the shoe industry – and are still in operation today.
Masters’ Houses, 1925-6
The city of Dessau commissioned Walter Gropius to create three pairs of semi-detached houses for the Bauhaus masters, and a detached house for the director. Located in a small pine wood on Ebertallee, the houses were constructed with industrially prefabricated components that were assembled in modular formations. The houses are formed of interlocking cubic structures, with tarraces, balconies and colourful accents on details such as the window reveals, balcony undersides and drainpipes.
Bauhaus studio building, 1925-6View Google Maps
Haus am Horn, 1923
Located in Weimar, the Haus am Horn was designed by Georg Muche as part of the Bauhaus Exhibition in 1923. Created as a ‘model house’, the building was intended as a first step towards the creation of a Bauhaus settlement of university and residential buildings, that never ultimately happened. The house features original furniture by Bauhaus designers Marcel Breuer, Theodor Bogler and Alma Siedhoff-Buscher. The house was restored in 1999 on the 80th anniversary of the Bauhaus and is undergoing another phase of restoration and will reopen to the public again in April 2019.
The Weissenhof Estate, 1927
Located in Stuttgart, this housing estate was designed and built on the occasion of an exhibition that showcased the International style of modern architecture. The complex which is included in the Bauhaus UNESCO World Heritage portfolio, was lead by Mies van der Rohe and designed in part by Le Corbusier and a group of other architects who contributed through competition. It features 21 buildings that offer a range of typologies and sizes from detached house to apartment.
Designed by Walter Gropius, the Bauhaus-Archiv / Museum für Gestaltung in Berlin was built in Berlin in 1976-79. Originally intended for a site in Darmstadt, the building was replanned for the Berlin site by Alex Cvijanovic and architect Hans Bandel. While there were some compromises, the iconic shed roofs were maintained and Gropius’ general ground floor plan. In 2019, the renovated building with a new additional museum building will open.
Lemke House, 1933
Mies van der Rohe’s house for Karl Lemke in the suburbs of Berlin is designed to an L-shaped plan in a courthouse style. The house was a private retreat connected to the landscape, and while it doesn’t have an open-plan structure, Mies van der Rohe implemented his concept of flowing space into the design.
The ‘Horseshoe Estate’ in Berlin built from 1925-33 was designed by Bruno Taut as a response to the city’s growing population. The name refers to the shape of the development as a curve of 25 terraced homes, each with a garden. Red, yellow, white and blue colours were used across the facades and architectural elements.
Weiße Stadt, 1931
Designed from 1929-31 by a group of architects designated for the project, the Weiße Stadt in Reinickendorf was built as a complex of low budget residential homes with amenities including shops, nurseries and doctor’s surgeries. The design incorporated pre-fabricated elements with standardized features and the white buildings with coloured highlights were positioned around green spaces.
Zeche Zollverein, 1957
Located near Essen, the Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex was designed with Bauhaus principles by architects Fritz Schupp and Martin Kemmer. The twin-trestle winding tower has become an emblem of the Ruhr district and its industrial legacy. The massive complex was the largest coal mine in the world during its most active industrial period. Working its final shift in 1986, it has become a cultural and entertainment venue and it was awarded the designation of UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001.
Siedlung Bornheimer Hang, 1925
Architect and city planner Ernst May was the mastermind behind this housing development in Frankfurt as part of the wider New Frankfurt project. May collaborated with Herbert Boehm to design the houses with pointed gable roofs, to adapt to the existing vernacular, with vertical strip windows as well as apartment blocks. Construction of the 1540 units was completed by 1930, thanks to the use of prefabricated elements.
Goslar Bergwerk, 1936
The architectural complex of the Rammelsberg ore mine was designed by Fritz Schupp and Martin Kremmer, who designed other industrial structures in the Ruhr. Classic principles of modernism were employed within the designs, which had an impact on industrial processes and production. After ceasing operations in 1988, Rammelsberg was designated a UNESCO world cultural heritage site in 1992.