Tom of Finland at 100: the icon who raised the homoerotic to high art

Tom of Finland beefed up the image of homosexuality, creating images of bulgingly priapic cops and cowboys that have become icons of gay liberation. To hail his centenary, we delve into the Wallpaper* archives to revisit this feature from the November 2014 issue (W*188), when our US editor Michael Reynolds teamed up with photographer Jack Pierson and art historian Richard Meyer to discover the artist’s house-turned-foundation

Daytime image outside Tom of Finlands House, Tall hedges, black parked car on road, palm tree trunks, top half of house, tiled roof, windows, backdrop image of the bricked doorway, cardboard cut out black and white male in policeman's uniform, paved path to the side of the house, trees and small hedges and ceramic plant pot
This 1910 house in LA’s Echo Park, purchased by the artist’s friend Durk Dehner and others in 1979, became home to Touko Laaksonen (aka Tom of Finland) from 1980 until his passing in 1991. Tom’s studio is behind the top floor’s stained-glass windows. Banners and wooden cut-outs of Tom’s alter ego, ‘Kake’, painted by artist Taurus Webster, adorn the front yard. Out front is Dehner’s 1970 Chevrolet El Camino, the ‘Tom-mobile’. Today the house is the HQ of the Tom of Finland Foundation, with Dehner as president, dedicated to preserving and promoting erotic art
(Image credit: Jack Pierson)

On a palm tree-lined street in Echo Park, an increasingly hip neighbourhood near downtown Los Angeles, you’ll find a beautifully preserved craftsman house from 1910. Apart from the 12ft hedges that run across the front of the property, little would seem to distinguish the residence from its well-kept neighbours. Step inside, however, and a different world comes into view. 

Hundreds of works of erotic art spread across virtually all the 17 rooms in the house, as well as its backyard patio and terraced gardens. They range from a sculpted phallus called Disco Boy, made of tiny squares of mirrored glass, to a bird feeder fitted with delicately hand-painted scenes of bondage and discipline.

A working fountain incorporating a urinal has been constructed in the backyard, while faux frescoes on the first and second floor ceilings present a veritable orgy of men pleasuring themselves and one another. 

Left daytime image: rear garden area, green shed, door open, table chairs, gazebo, sofa cover in purple blanket underneath, planters, palm trees Right daytime image: another garden area, round black framed glass table and leather chair and seats, black and white artwork banner of two males dressed in leather, red stone floor

Left (inset): In the house’s rear garden, the ‘sugar shack’ was erected by foundation member Carr Galen as ‘a sanctuary where one might work, read and fuck’. Opposite: in another of the garden’s seating areas hangs a banner by Taurus Webster, commemorating an iconic drawing by Tom of Finland from a series completed in 1963

(Image credit: Jack Pierson)

The house is the headquarters of the Tom of Finland Foundation, an organisation devoted to preserving the legacy of the most influential homoerotic artist of the 20th century. Across a career that spanned nearly 50 years, Tom created thousands of drawings of muscle-bound, bulgingly priapic sailors, soldiers, cops, cowboys, bikers and lifeguards. His pictures delight in the sheen of leather boots and motorcycle jackets and in the snug fit of sailor trousers and muscle shirts. 

The male figures wearing those boots and trousers engage in exuberant acts of sexual exchange, often leaning toward fetishism and light bondage. For all their explicitness, Tom’s drawings remain lodged within a fantasy world of illustration where every guy is impossibly well-endowed and endlessly open to the next erotic adventure.

The Tom of Finland house is also the private residence of Durk Dehner and SR Sharp, a couple who serve as the foundation’s president and vice president, respectively. Dehner, a close friend, model and muse for Tom of Finland, co-founded the organisation with the artist in 1984. Originally conceived as a means to promote Tom’s work and preserve his legacy, the foundation eventually expanded to support a wide range of erotic art – by both men and women – through exhibitions, life-drawing classes, erotic art fairs and an artist-in-residence programme. 

Background male erotic artwork sketches, Left Image: Small wood table with ornamental statues, dark wood wall surround, top half of wall in colour orange with black framed male erotic art Right image: wood floor, corner of patterned floor rug, dark wood book case with books, black leather boots on top, painting of man in black leather leant against a closed black door, male erotic art framed on the walls

Background: a detail of the rear patio’s bar front, collaged with reproduced Tom of Finland illustrations by a foundation member. Left: vintage Tom of Finland graphite drawings in the dining room, a tray by Finnish sculptor Pekka Jylhä and a plaster replica of sculptor Vincenzo de’ Rossi’s 16th-century Hercules and Diomedes. Right: portrait of Durk Dehner, painted by artist Bruce Rapp in 1986, leans against a door in Dehner’s bedroom. Peering from behind a pair of leather boots is a 1976 photo of Dehner taken by Bruce Weber 

(Image credit: Jack Pierson)

The foundation’s early years coincided with the height of the Aids epidemic in America. Artists concerned that their work would be forgotten or destroyed after their deaths bequeathed it to the foundation knowing it would be archived and lovingly preserved. The foundation now possesses a permanent collection of approximately 3,500 works, some 150 of which are displayed in the home at any one time, often in thematic exhibitions curated by Sharp and Dehner. In addition, original drawings by Tom, as well as numerous reproductions and monumental blow-ups of his work, appear throughout the house and grounds.

The artist, born Touko Laaksonen, gained his professional moniker in 1957, when his drawings first appeared in the American magazine Physique Pictorial. The magazine’s photographer/publisher, Bob Mizer, felt the artist’s foreign name would be too difficult for readers to pronounce or remember so he dubbed him ‘Tom of Finland’. 

During the 1980s, Tom split his time between Helsinki and Los Angeles, ultimately basing himself entirely at the house in Echo Park (Dehner had purchased the home with friends). Tom’s studio/ bedroom in the converted attic has been preserved  much as the artist left it, with leather pillowcases on the bed and pencils and chalk at the drafting table. Also displayed in the room are Tom’s motorcycle jacket, boots and a selection of his beloved uniforms, including those of a Finnish soldier, an American sailor, a German police officer and a Canadian Mountie. 

Left image: pair of male black leather buckle boots, sat on black folded leather, backdrop books on shelves Right image: male erotic black ornament with black leather cap on top, neutral wall, bottom of black picture frame, central image of a desk with small boxes of crayons, and artist tools

Right: a leather cap left on top of a 1980s male version of the 1930 Art Deco lamp ‘Clarté’ by Max le Verrier. Inset: a desktop detail from Tom’s studio, with the artist’s brushes, pencils and chalks. Left: reference binders cataloguing male physique imagery preserved by the foundation act as a backdrop to an inset image of Dehner’s custom, double-buckle boots from Wesco. Folded beneath them is a pair of custom leather trousers made by 665 leather, belonging to SR Sharp, the foundation’s vice president and curator

(Image credit: Jack Pierson)

While unapologetically pornographic, Tom’s work has increasingly been recognised as high art. The permanent collections of both the Museum of Modern Art in New York and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art include drawings by the artist and, this past June, a selection of Tom’s work was shown (and sold) at Art Basel, the most prestigious international art fair. In 2013, working closely with the foundation, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles presented a show featuring Tom’s drawings and collages alongside photographs by Mizer from Physique Pictorial. The exhibition’s introductory text described Tom of Finland as ‘the creator of some of the most iconic and readily recognisable images of post-war homomasculinity’ (almost certainly marking that word’s official debut in the museum).

Alongside its elevation by the art world, Tom’s work has increasingly entered mainstream culture. In September of this year, the Finnish postal service released stamps in honour of the artist, one of which features a drawing of a naked man’s shapely buttocks and spread legs. According to Sharp, these are ‘the first homoerotic postage stamps in the world’. The nomination of Tom for this honour was made by the foundation, which also worked on a companion show, currently on display at the Finnish Postal Museum in Tampere. Titled ‘Sealed with a Secret: Correspondence of Tom of Finland’, the show mines the artist’s trove of letters and photographs to chart his life and work.

When Tom’s work first appeared in the 1950s, it defied the dominant image of gay men as sissies, fairies and pansies

Tom’s influence extends not only to other erotic artists but also to the development of gay culture across the second half of the 20th century. His drawings have inspired countless viewers not just to hit the gym or don a biker cap but also to imagine an alternative version of homosexuality. As Sharp puts it, ‘when Tom’s work first appeared in the 1950s, it defied the dominant image of gay men as sissies, fairies and pansies’. Tom’s drawings offered a ‘homo-masculine’ ideal that spoke not only to the desires but also to the personal aspirations of his viewing audience. Some admirers of Tom’s art even had their trousers tailored to fit more like those of the men in the drawings, then sent photographs of themselves wearing the refashioned attire to the artist. Such photographs may now be found in the correspondence archive held by the foundation.

Montage of images, upper left a sketch black and white portrait of Tom, framed in black over a headboard, Bottom left: double bed with black leather pillows, side table with lit lamp and black clock, black dressing table in the backdrop, Upper right: square shaped wooden bowl of lemons on a erotically decorated table top, Bottom right: Painting of a topless muscular male

Clockwise from bottom left, Dehner’s bed, dressed to impress with black leather pillowcases and a military blanket; a painted and collaged portrait of tom by German artist Rinaldo Hopf, 1991, hangs in the stairwell; a detail from Tom’s Northmen, 1989, which hangs in the foyer; lemons from the garden atop a collaged front porch table

(Image credit: Jack Pierson)

And yet, what may finally be most inspiring about the Tom of Finland house is the way in which the artist’s relentlessly butch aesthetic mingles with quite different styles of décor and domesticity. That aforementioned mirrored phallus (made by the artist Douglas Holtquist) sits beneath an art nouveau crystal chandelier from 1913. A bust of a bearded leatherman in the kitchen turns out, on closer inspection, to be a ceramic jar (the man’s biker cap doubles as a removable lid) with a base bearing the inscription ‘tuff cookie’. And a quilt spread across a guest room bed features two male nudes – each intricately composed of geometric patches of blue, white and black fabric – enjoying a moment of shared self-gratification. 

Rather than appearing kitsch, such objects might be seen as an example of camp at its most generous. In her 1964 notes on that subject, Susan Sontag wrote that ‘people who share this sensibility are not laughing at the thing they label as “a camp”, they’re enjoying it. Camp is a tender feeling.’

And it was, finally, a feeling of tenderness that seemed most to pervade the house, a tenderness towards art, towards sexuality and towards those seeking to combine the two. A rotating cast of characters lives in the house along with Sharp and Dehner, including artists, volunteers and fellow foundation members. A free-form, communal spirit infuses domestic life there. At the moment, a 22-year-old Vietnamese body modification performance artist known professionally as Miss Daphne Von Rey is in residence there along with an Australian writer-in-residence who is helping prepare an application for the house to be designated a historical-cultural monument (HCM) by the city of Los Angeles. Dehner estimates that some 100 artists and other creative souls have lived in the house at one point or another over the last two decades.

According to Dehner, the Tom of Finland house ‘isn’t just about the pictures [on display]. It’s much more about a headspace, a state of being, a letting go of shame and judgements, and a caring for one another. In this house, anybody can be a Tom’s man.’ §

This article originally featured in the November 2014 issue of Wallpaper* (W*188) 

Front magazine cover Wallpaper 2914, young topless male, gloss black platform, persons leg in a high heeled black leather boot, white and grey tubular patterned background

Wallpaper* November 2014 newsstand cover, an homage to Tom of Finland’s Man and His Boot, 1988. Photography: Jan Lehner. Fashion: Mathew Stevenson-Wright. Boots by Valentino. ‘Nero Marquina’ marble slab, by Lapicida. Models: Harry Goodwin at Models 1, Paulina at Body London. Grooming: Yoshitaka Miyazaki

(Image credit: Jan Lehner)

Artist pencil sketch of a topless muscular male, leather cap, long boots, tight trousers, draping jacket over his shoulder

Untitled preparatory drawing, 1987

(Image credit: Tom of Finland © Tom of Finland Foundation)

Artist pencil sketch back shot of a muscular male, sleeveless denim jacket, low rise jeans, long boots, right arm stretched out hitching a lift

Untitled preparatory drawing, 1977

(Image credit: Tom of Finland. © Tom of Finland Foundation)